I M M O B I L I S M | a labor of love lost and found (2010-2020)
I wrote these words a long time ago.
As with taxis, Beirut’s bus system is made of large corporates fleets and smaller route associations; given my primary interest in this system, I will discuss these in separate sections.
1.2. Activist Conceptions of Urban Order
Another important factor in this “transfer of influence” (Fawaz, 1984: 489) to Beirut, however, was the civil war of 1860. This war began as an anti-feudal, peasant uprising in the northern village of Keserwan, but it became increasingly sectarian as it spread throughout Mount Lebanon, reaching Damascus within a few months (Makdissi, 2000). The spread of atrocities drew the attention of the ‘Great Powers’ of Europe who put pressure on the Ottomans to implement changes in the Empire. This pressure produced a new system of governance in Mountain Lebanon that was to become a “fundamental part of the governmentality of the future nation-state of Lebanon” (Fregonese, 2012: 321).
I wrote these words in secret, after dark, a long time ago. I hesitated when writing these words.